Floor Tiles: Information on Popular Flooring
Floor tiles are usually made of ceramics and are colloquially called tiles. The tiles are used both indoors and outdoors as wall covering and flooring. The term & quot; tile & ldquo; is a generic term that is also valid for glass, carpet, natural stone and much more and classifies components of similar shape.
The word ceramic comes from the Greek word & nbsp;; & nbsp; & nbsp;; & nbsp; & nbsp; & gt; & gt; Keramos & nbsp; & gt; & ldquo ;. Although clay formed around a million years ago, it took a long time for the material to be discovered by humans. The first clay objects were first created about 30,000 years ago, although the history of humans began 600,000 years ago. Nevertheless, ceramics is one of the oldest creations created by man.
Over time, utility and cultural objects of all kinds have found a place in human daily life. Glazes were around 5,000 BC. Chr. Used. 2,400 years later, the Egyptians use glazed ceramic tiles as wall decorations in their pyramids. Persians, Babylonians and Assyrians have been producing colored semi-precious stones and relief tiles since the middle of the second millennium. The Tile Ceramics came from Persia via Arabia to Europe and spread there beginning with the 14th century. The tiles experienced their heyday in the Middle Ages in the Netherlands, Italy and Spain. Particularly famous are the tiles of the Delft faience manufactories, which were made in the 17th and 18th centuries.
In Germany, the first ceramic floor tiles appeared as floor tiles around the year 1000. For millennia, however, they only adorned castles, churches, palaces and the mansions of princes, kings and other rich personalities. Before the industrial age, the manufacture was a elaborate craft , which was valuable and therefore very expensive.
Tiles are exposed to more or less heavy daily loads such as on-site traffic or rubbing dirt. With Abrasive Groups consumers are being told where more resilient floor tiles should be laid. In damp rooms such as bathroom and laundry belong anti-slip models. Under slip resistance is the slip resistance of a tile to understand. Here are several classifications:
- R9 for the private interior
- R10-R12 for outdoor use, terrace, swimming pool
- R11-R13 for commercial kitchens and commercial use
next to of the slip resistance or slip resistance , there are floor tiles that are termed & quot; frost-proof & quot; are standardized. However, this is only the case if professional adhesive has been used. Then the floor tiles withstand temperatures as low as -30 ° C.
A further classification is the Abriebgruppe:
- Suitable for light use in the bathroom and bedroom or barefoot and slipper area.
- Light to medium Stress in the private living area (living room) with little dirt and walk frequency.
- All tiles of the abrasion group 3 are suitable for medium occupancy in the entire living area as well as kitchens, corridors and stairs.
- The fourth abrasion group is designed for heavy use, such as on terraces or in the garage as well as in public institutions and shops.
- Group 5 is not intended for the private sector, but very heavy demands, as they occur in shopping malls and restaurants.
Also important is the Brand Color . Floor tiles that have the same fire color, come from the same burning process and thus have a matching hue. Consumers should choose the same fire color for each room. This marking is printed on each carton.
Important : The fire color is not a quality mark!
The basic material of tiles is clay , whose preparation is complicated and complicated. The color of the clay depends on its composition and the mining area, as well as the treatment and fire processes. For the production of ceramic tiles clay as well as sand and feldspar are used. After appropriate pre-treatment, the mixtures are shaped to the desired shape and fired at temperatures between 1,000 and 1,250 ° C.
In modern ceramic production , powder pressing and extrusion are used. Most ceramic tiles are today produced by the firing process. Due to the high firing temperature, the process is not suitable for all glazed floor tiles. In this case, a second firing, called a double firing, occurs.
The fired clay body of a tile is referred to as & lt; & gt; shards & lt; & gt; & gt; designated. Depending on the structure of the piece, there are three types of ceramics:
- Stoneware : Earthenware is ceramics whose bodies are fired at 1,000 to 1,100 ° C and which have a water absorption of more than ten percent after the process. These shards have good decoration and machinability. Due to its lack of frost resistance, stoneware is used exclusively for interior purposes.
- Stoneware : Cuts are fired at higher temperatures of 1,150 to 1,250 ° C. Feldspar and other fluxes are added to fill large spaces with molten glass drops. The result is lower water absorption, higher density and better mechanical strength. As a result, stoneware is also frost-resistant and suitable for outdoor use.
- Porcelain stoneware : Very fine mineral powder with high proportions of quartz is dry-pressed together with feldspar and other fluxes under great pressure. Thanks to the high firing temperature of about 1,200 ° C, a dense connection takes place, which leads to high chemical resistance and wear resistance. The water absorption is less than 0.5 percent.
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